For most of human history, people didn’t buy things to just throw them out after a year or two. People bought goods as investments and did what they could to maintain what they possessed. Moreover, artisans stood behind their work. When the wear and tear of everyday use took its toll, goods returned to their makers for artisans to mend seams and replace broken hardware before they sent each item back to its owner. People marked the value of their goods in how long they lasted and how well they worked throughout their lifetime. They took steps to ensure what they owned lasted as long as possible.